Programs, usually offered by community adult schools or evening classes at local high schools, that provide instruction in fundamental learning skills for adults who have never attended school or have interrupted formal schooling and need to raise their level of education to increase their self-confidence and/or prepare for an occupation. Emphasis is placed on basic reading, language and mathematics.
Programs, usually within the formal education system, that provide supplementary instructional services for children who are experiencing learning difficulties and are at risk for academic failure and/or dropping out of school, often as a result of living in poverty, experiencing racism, growing up in single-parent or other nontraditional family structures, entering school with a primary language other than English or French or other social and cultural factors. Compensatory education programs target students who are performing significantly below achievement expectations in language arts, math and/or reading; and feature low teacher-student ratios, individualized instruction, cross-age tutoring and, in some areas, a wide variety of field trips and cultural experiences.
Programs that provide educational services for students who have been suspended or expelled from school or have left school for other reasons prior to receiving a diploma; or which seek to prevent students of compulsory school age from skipping classes, being suspended or expelled for disruptive behaviour, failing or maintaining a low grade point average, or dropping out of school.
Programs that provide opportunities for students to initiate courses of individual study which are usually directed or assisted by instructional staff and certificates or degrees may be awarded upon successful completion.
Programs offered by English-speaking school districts that provide classes in regular school subjects such as math, science and social studies that are taught in the immersion language enabling students to acquire the language as they learn the content. Once a firm base in the immersion language has been established, instruction in English language arts is added, and instruction in the English language gradually increases. Students generally continue to receive instruction in certain subjects in the immersion language so that by the end of secondary school, proficiency is achieved in both languages. Included are total immersion programs in which all classes are taught in the immersion language; partial immersion programs in which half of the subjects are taught in the immersion language (with material in some cases, reinforced in English); and dual (or two-way) language immersion programs in which one to two thirds of the students speak the immersion language natively, the others speaking English natively.
Programs that provide reading and writing instruction for individuals of all ages who are unable to read or write at a functional level. Some programs interpret literacy more broadly and also help people develop speaking, computation and problem solving skills with the objective of ensuring that they develop levels of proficiency they will need to become self sufficient and function well in society.
Programs that foster understanding, acceptance, empathy, and constructive and harmonious relations among people of diverse cultures. Multicultural education encourages learners of all ages to view different cultures as a source of learning and enrichment, promoting cultural understanding and cultural accommodations. The outcome of multicultural education should be an increased knowledge about other cultures, pride in a student's own heritage, an appreciation of other ways of life, and improved cross-cultural social and communication skills.
Programs that are designed to develop specific cognitive skills, usually in the language arts and mathematics, from a deficient level to one that is appropriate to the educational level and aspirations of a particular student. Diagnostic testing to determine the nature and extent of the problem may also be included.
Programs that provide educational services including special placement and individualized programming, instruction and/or support services for exceptional children, youth and/or adults, including those who have hearing impairments, visual impairments, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities or speech or language impairments and who need appropriately modified curricula, teaching methodologies and instructional materials in order to learn. Services may include the development, in partnership with the child's parents, of an individualized educational plan to meet the child's needs and the implementation and review at least annually of each child's plan to determine progress and future needs.
Secondary or postsecondary education programs available in regular or trade high schools or through separate vocational centres or programs that provide formal preparation for semiskilled, skilled, technical or professional occupations for high-school-aged students and, in some cases, adults who have opted to develop or expand their employment opportunities, often in lieu of preparing for college entry. Vocational education programs help participants prepare for full-time employment upon graduation, part-time employment while in school or for more advanced vocational training at the postsecondary level.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.